Maria Viktoria Bloch-Bauer was born to Gustav Bloch-Bauer and Therese Bauer on February 18, 1916, in Vienna, Austria.  The book was dramatised for the stage in January 2015. He added that Ferdinand had said he would honour the clause, even though he, not Adele, was the legal owner of the paintings. The real-life heroism of Jan and Antonina Zabinski, who helped save 300 Jews and insurgents during the Holocaust, has become a Hollywood movie. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. It was exhibited in 1908 under the title Liebespaar (the lovers) as stated in the catalogue of the exhibition. " In June 2006 the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I was sold to Ronald Lauder for $135 million, at the time a record price for a painting. , Both the current holder of the portrait—the Neue Galerie New York—and the art historian Elana Shapira describe how the background and gown contain symbols suggestive of erotica, including triangles, eggs, shapes of eyes and almonds.  Lauder placed the work in the Neue Galerie, the New York-based gallery he co-founded. Many of the critics had negative reactions to the two paintings, describing them as "mosaic-like wall-grotesqueries", "bizarre", "absurdities" and "vulgarities". Following the Anschluss of Austria by Nazi Germany, Ferdinand fled Vienna, and made his way to Switzerland, leaving behind much of his wealth, including his large art collection.  In the late 1890s Adele met Klimt, and may have begun a relationship with him.  The paintings were exported from Austria in March 2006 and exhibited together at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art from April to June that year. , After exhibition at the Kunstschau, the portrait was hung at the Bloch-Bauers' Vienna residence. , In 1908 the portrait was exhibited at the Kunstschau in Vienna where critical reaction was mixed. When the Austrian government passed a restitution law in 1998, ruling that property stolen by the Nazis could be returned to its rightful owners, Maria Altmann — now in her 80s — began a legal battle to regain the Klimts that belonged to her family, which … Her father was a director of the Wiener Bankverein [de], the seventh largest bank in Austria-Hungary, and the general director of Oriental Railroads.  In 1903 Ferdinand purchased his first Klimt work from the artist, Buchenwald (Beech Forest). Now, a first look at Kristen Wiig’s role in Wonder Woman 1984 has also been shared. Major production companies often distribute films from independent production companies. In 1912 Ferdinand commissioned a second painting of his wife, in which "the erotic charge of the likeness of 1907 has been spent", according to Whitford. Staats-Gallerie in Wien, die mir gehörende Wiener und Jungfer. Although there were calls from some Austrians for the state to purchase the five paintings, the government stated that the price would be too high to justify the expense. He died of a broken heart.” Of course, the Nazis seized all of Ferdinand's assets, which included his vast art collection. [n 3], In mid-1903 Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer commissioned Klimt to paint a portrait of his wife; he wished to give the piece to Adele's parents as an anniversary present that October. Eileen Kinsella, the editor of ARTnews, considered the high price was due to several factors, particularly the painting's provenance, the increasing demand for Austrian Expressionism, rising prices in the art world and "Lauder's passion for and pursuit of this particular work".  Whitford identifies influences of the art of the Byzantine, Egypt, Mycenae and Greece, describing that "the gold is like that in Byzantine mosaics; the eyes on the dress are Egyptian, the repeated coils and whorls Mycenaean, while other decorative devices, based on the initial letters of the sitter's name, are vaguely Greek". But the Nazis stole them from her — the stunning necklace she wore on her wedding day was sent to Nazi leader Hermann Göring as a present for his wife. He depicted her in a swirling gown within a blaze of gold rectangles, spirals and Egyptian symbols — she became the epitome of Vienna's Golden Age. Several works were returned to the Bloch-Bauer estate, but no Klimt paintings; to obtain the necessary export permits, the family were forced to let the Austrian state retain Häuser in Unterach am Attersee, Adele Bloch-Bauer I, Adele Bloch-Bauer II, and Apfelbaum I.  Klimt in particular challenged what he saw as the "hypocritical boundaries of respectability set by Viennese society"; according to the art historian Susanna Partsch, he was "the enfant terrible of the Viennese art scene, [and] was acknowledged to be the painter of beautiful women". Schoenberg showed that three of the conditions pertinent to the case were that Altmann's property had been taken in violation of international law; the property was owned by the state in question, or one of its agencies; and that the property had been used on a commercial basis in the US.  O'Connor writes that the painting "seem[s] to embody femininity", and thus likens it to the Mona Lisa, while for Müller and Tatzkow, the gold gives the effect that Adele appears "melancholy and vulnerable, unapproachably aloof and yet rapt". The artist Catherine Dean considered that Adele was "the only society lady painted by Klimt who is known definitely to be his mistress", while the journalist Melissa Müller and the academic Monica Tatzkow write that "no evidence has ever been produced that their relationship was more than a friendship". The Kiss (in German Der Kuss) is an oil-on-canvas painting with added gold leaf, silver and platinum. Altmann was left with only memories of the paintings, as they were stolen when the Nazis took over Austria in 1938.  Adele was the model for the work, and wore a heavily-jewelled deep choker given to her by Ferdinand, in what Whitford describes as "Klimt's most erotic painting". Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art.Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. The Austrian government filed for dismissal, with arguments based on the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (1976). 16. 5.  For Whitford the effect of the gold background is to "remove Adele Bloch-Bauer from the earthly plane, transform the flesh and blood into an apparition from a dream of sensuality and self-indulgence"; he, and Thomson, consider the work to look more like a religious icon than a secular portrait. Two years later, the art finally found its way to her home in Los Angeles, becoming the most expensive return of Nazi-stolen art at that time. In September the following year, he moved to neutral Switzerland where he lived in a hotel. This list includes both active and no longer active (defunct) companies.  Néret also states that Klimt used the gold to give subjects a sacred or magical quality. , Adele Bauer [de] was from a wealthy Jewish Viennese family. With whatever its shortcomings it was thought sufficiently impressive to deserve an honorable mention when shown at the Exposicion General de Bellas Artes in Madrid in the spring of 1897, and a gold medal in provincial Malaga shortly afterwards. The first and most famous of the two later became known as Woman in Gold. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941 and displayed at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere.  Opinion is divided on whether Adele and Klimt had an affair. It was the first of two depictions of Adele by Klimt—the sec… [n 7] Several other Nazi leaders, including Hermann Göring, the Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, also obtained works from the collection. Adele died in 1925; her will asked that the artworks by Klimt were to be left to the Galerie Belvedere, although these belonged to Ferdinand, not her. The art historian Julle M. Johnson states that the writer was, The Austrian Art Restitution Act was brought in following the seizure in the US of, Schoenberg was the grandson of the composer, Schoenberg selected Nödl, a Viennese barrister; the Austrian government picked Rechberger, the dean of the Faculty of Law at the, United States District Court for the Central District of California, Gustav Klimt and Adele Bloch-Bauer, Neue Galerie, Neue Galerie New York Agrees to Acquire Spectacular Klimt Painting, US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit: Altmann V. Republic of Austria (2003), "Republic of Austria v. Altmann 541 U.S. 677 (2004)", "Gustav Klimt: Five Paintings from the Collection of Ferdinand and Adele Bloch-Bauer", 2006, "New York: Staged Reading: The Accidental Caregiver", Embassy of Austria, "Court Awards Nazi-Looted Artworks to L.A. Woman", "Klimts Go to Market; Museums Hold Their Breath", "Patt Morrison Asks: E. Randol Schoenberg—for the gold Klimt", "Lauder Pays $135 Million, a Record, for a Klimt Portrait", "The Gustav Klimt Painting Oprah Reportedly Sold for $150M Has Quite a Story", "Arbitral Award – 5 Klimt paintings Maria V. Altmann and others v. Republic of Austria, 15 January 2004", "Testament vom 19.1.1923 von Adele Bloch-Bauer", "Portrait of Wally – United States and Estate of Lea Bondi and Leopold Museum", "Gustav Klimt and Adele Bloch-Bauer: The Woman in Gold", "Gustav Klimt: Five Paintings from the Collection of Ferdinand and Adele Bloch-Bauer".  Peter Vergo, writing for Grove Art, considers that the painting "marks the height of ... [Klimt's] gold-encrusted manner of painting".  The painting was lent for an exhibition at the Vienna Secession in 1928 to mark the tenth anniversary of Klimt's death; in 1934 it was displayed in London as part of the Austria in London exhibition. It is very meaningful to me that they are seen by anybody who wants to see them, because that would have been the wish of my aunt. The artist completed the 70.8 in x 70.8 in (180 x 180 cm) painting in 1909. The artist and the work are legal tender. Next on the list is “The Lady in Gold”, painted by Austrian artist, Gustav Klimt. , From 1898 Klimt began to experiment with the style in what became known as his Byzantine or Golden period, when his works, stylistically influenced by Art Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts movement, were gilded with gold leaf. "Neue Galerie New York Agrees to Acquire Spectacular Klimt Painting, "New York: Staged Reading: The Accidental Caregiver (presented by the ACF New York)", "Six Klimt paintings – Maria Altmann and Austria", Austrian Arbitral Award, "Maria V. Altmann and others v. Republic of Austria", 6 May 2006, Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portrait_of_Adele_Bloch-Bauer_I&oldid=999986794, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 23:32. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941 and displayed at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. “They will delay, delay, delay, hoping I will die,” she told The Los Angeles Times in 2001, with no end in sight to her case. Ronald Lauder, a businessman and philanthropist who had loved Adele's face from boyhood, happily paid $135 million to enshrine her in his Neue Galerie in Manhattan. Girl with a Pearl Earring (Dutch: Meisje met de parel) is an oil painting by Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer, dated c. 1665. A California couple found $10 million in gold coins buried on their property. A production company may specialize in producing their in-house films or own subsidiary development companies. [n 13], After the panel's decision was announced, the Galerie Belvedere ran a series of advertisements that appeared in bus stops and on underground railway platforms. FACE VALUE Pablo Picasso’s Bust of a Woman, 1931.Opposite, the artist in Cannes, September 11, 1956. , As part of the process to deal with the purported tax evasion, the Nazi lawyer Friedrich Führer was appointed as the administrator of the estate.  Ferdinand was older than his fiancée and at the time of the marriage in December 1899, she was 18 and he was 35. He continued to paint such images right until his death in 1918. The painting thrilled the art critics when first presented in 1908 and the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere bought it immediately despite the fact that it was unfinished. The committee's decision recommended that 16 Klimt drawings and 19 pieces of porcelain that had been held by Ferdinand and Adele and which were still at the Galerie Belvedere should be returned, as they fell outside the request of the will.  In February 1918, Klimt suffered a stroke and was hospitalised; he caught pneumonia due to the worldwide influenza epidemic and died that month.. “But I will do them the pleasure of staying alive.”, She did and she triumphed. The portrait shows Adele Bloch-Bauer sitting on a golden throne or chair, in front of a golden starry background. They stated that five of the six paintings in question should be returned to the Bloch-Bauer estate, as outlined in Ferdinand's will; only the Portrait of Amalie Zuckerkandl was to be retained by the gallery. The painting is oversized, measuring approximately 6 x 6 feet. If, however, your painting is worth somewhere between $500 and $10,000, which is still a handsome sum, you can just present yourself and your item to an auction house or art dealer and get their advice. - September 7, 2015. Photo: Lawrence K. Ho/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images. The aged crone is symbolic of the passage of time. Gustav Klimt was born in 1862 in Baumgarten, near Vienna in Austria-Hungary. , Adele's hair, face, décolletage and hands are painted in oil; they make up less than a twelfth of the work and, in Whitford's opinion, convey little about the sitter's character. Girl with a Pearl Earring, oil painting (c. 1665) by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, one of his most well-known works. Altmann and her lawyer took their case all the way to the Supreme Court and won. When Altmann arrived there, she defied the security guards to be photographed beside her Aunt Adele, saying loudly: “That painting belongs to me.”, For many years, Altmann battled the Austrian government with great fervor.  After he donated over $7 million for the building of the new premises of the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust, he said that he had "tried to do good things with the money". , Klimt worked in Vienna during the Belle Époque, during which time the city made "an extreme and lasting contribution to the history of modern art". While Altmann and her husband are successful, she is forced to abandon her parents in Vienna. Although Altmann was not old enough at the time to remember Klimt's visits, she grew up visiting her uncle and aunt's grand house, which was filled with pictures, tapestries, elegant furniture and a collection of fine porcelain. The beloved hymn and its author John Newton, a former enslaver, have inspired a new Broadway musical, but the true history is complex and ambiguous. His Viennese residence became an office of Deutsche Reichsbahn, the German railway company, while his castle in Czechoslovakia was taken after the German occupation as the personal residence of the SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich. [n 1] Klimt had begun using gold in his 1890 portrait of the pianist Joseph Pembauer, but his first work that included a golden theme was Pallas Athene (1898). [n 10] They filed a claim with the restitution committee for the return of six paintings: Adele Bloch-Bauer I, Adele Bloch-Bauer II, Apfelbaum I, Buchenwald, Häuser in Unterach am Attersee and Amalie Zuckerkandl. If you haven't found a fortune in your backyard, don't give up! "), In February 1925 Adele died of meningitis. In 1999 she and her lawyer tried to sue the Austrian government. Altmann took the sweater to a department store in Beverly Hills, which agreed to sell them.  In November 2006 the remaining four Klimt paintings were sold at Christie's auction house. From this comes the resplendence, the stiff decoration of his art". Bernhard had already escaped to London by this time, but when he heard the news about his brother, he gave the Nazis his business, and in turn, Frederick was set free. Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as ma donna – similar to Ma'am, Madam, or my lady in English. For many years, Altmann had assumed that the Austrian National Gallery had taken possession of the Klimt paintings. In a series of flashbacks, Maria Altmann recalls Anschluss, the arrival of Nazi forces in Vienna, the persecution of the Jewish community and the looting and pillaging by the Nazis against Jewish families. After a seven-year legal claim, which included a hearing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, an arbitration committee in Vienna agreed that the painting, and others, had been stolen from the family and that it should be returned to Altmann. The Kiss Artist Gustav Klimt Year 1907-1908 Medium Oil and gold leaf on canvas Location Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, Austria Dimensions 70.9 in × 70.9 in 180 cm × 180 cm Famous Paintings by Gustav Klimt The Kiss Adele Bloch-Bauer I The Three Ages of Woman Adele Bloch-Bauer II Beethoven Frieze Danaë The Austrian artist A romance between the women is depicted in the movie "Ammonite," but historians believe they were simply close friends. In so doing, it disregarded the fact that his own will had left his estate to his nieces and nephews. The work permanently resides in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague. (The lawyer who handled Altmann's case was E Randol Schoenberg, the composer's grandson. , In December 1941 Führer transferred the paintings Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I and Apfelbaum I to the Galerie Belvedere in return for Schloss Kammer am Attersee III, which he then sold to Gustav Ucicky, an illegitimate son of Klimt. (The painting, now in the collection of the Neue Galerie in New York, is part of a new exhibition created in conjunction with the movie. , In 1998 the Austrian government introduced the Art Restitution Act,[n 8] which looked again at the question of art stolen by the Nazis. She had just married opera singer Fritz Altmann and her uncle had given her Adele's diamond earrings and a necklace as a wedding present. [n 4] The Bloch-Bauers purchased some of the sketches he had made of Adele when they obtained 16 Klimt drawings.  To remove all reference to its Jewish subject matter, the gallery renamed the portrait with the German title Dame in Gold (translates as Lady in Gold). Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.  The history, as well as other stories of other stolen art, is told by Melissa Müller and Monika Tatzkow in Lost Lives, Lost Art: Jewish Collectors, Nazi Art Theft, and the Quest for Justice, published in 2010. [n 2], The couple shared a love of art, and patronised several artists, collecting primarily nineteenth-century Viennese paintings and modern sculpture. Ferdinand died in 1946; his will stated that his estate should go to his nephew and two nieces. Yet Altmann never forgot what the Nazis stole from her family. This is a list of film production and distribution companies. The Act granted immunity to sovereign nations except under certain conditions. The two boarded a plane to Cologne and made their way to the Dutch border, where a peasant guided them across a brook, under barbed wire and into the Netherlands.  During the 1890s he was influenced by European avant-garde art, including the works of the painters Fernand Khnopff, Jan Toorop and Aubrey Beardsley. The Nazis held Fredrick at Dachau concentration camp to persuade his brother, Bernhard, to sign over his lucrative textile factory to them. At the time, it was the largest sum ever purchased for a painting. All went to private collections. The painting is of a Jewish banker’s wife set in 1907 and was purchased by Ronald Lauder, a Russian billionaire, in 2006. Going by various names over the centuries, it became known by its present title towards the end of the 20th century after the large pearl earring worn by the girl portrayed there. It made no reference to the pictures, which he thought had been lost forever, but it stated that his entire estate was left to his nephew and two nieces—one of whom was Maria Altmann. The painting has been on display at the location since.  The story of Adele Bloch-Bauer and Maria Altmann formed the basis for the 2017 novel Stolen Beauty by Laurie Lico Albanese.  Ferdinand died in Switzerland in November that year. She was informed that the cost of filing (consisting of 1.2% of the amount in question, plus a filing fee), would have meant a fee of €1.75 million.  The works by Klimt which Ferdinand owned, including the two portraits, were moved to Adele's bedroom as a shrine to her. [n 9] The government formed a restitution committee to report on which works should be returned; government archives were opened up to research into the provenance of works held by the government. That autumn, following the Munich Agreement, he realised he was not safe and left for Paris. Ferdinand gave her Adele's jewelled choker as a wedding present. Yet the paintings hung in Vienna’s Austrian Gallery at Belvedere Palace with a placard inscribed: "Adele Bloch-Bauer 1907, bequeathed by Adele and Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer." This kind of thing happens all the time. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I became known as Woman in Gold, as well as a symbol of all that the family had lost. Enough loans.’ ”. Around her neck is the same jewelled choker Klimt included in the Judith painting. However, the world came to know Adele as Klimt had painted her in 1907.  Shortly afterwards Gustav filed for probate; he included a document that stated that the clause in the will was precatory, i.e. , Adele's parents arranged a marriage with Ferdinand Bloch, a banker and sugar manufacturer; Adele's older sister had previously married Ferdinand's older brother.  Schoenberg, who had worked on a 40 per cent conditional fee throughout, received $54 million for the sale of Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I and $55 million for the sale of the remaining four paintings.  Klimt drew over a hundred preparatory sketches for the portrait between 1903 and 1904.  To avoid the prohibitively high costs, Altmann and Schoenberg sued the Austrian government and the Galerie Belvedere in the US courts. , Klimt exhibited his portrait at the 1907 Mannheim International Art Show, alongside the Portrait of Fritza Riedler (1906). They were also forced to relinquish any claims on Buchenwald and Schloss Kammer am Attersee III. The painting is an example of Klimt's symbolic and allegorial works. a request rather than a binding testament. The assets raised from the purported sales of artwork, property and his sugar business were offset against the tax claim. The painting show a little girl in the protecting arms of a young woman, while beside them an old woman stands with bowed head. On 19 January 1923 Adele Bloch-Bauer wrote a will. Learn about the Jewish refugee whose painting of her aunt was stolen by Nazis and inspired the 2015 movie starring Helen Mirren. The couple then lived under house arrest until Altmann managed to elude the guards by claiming that her husband needed a dentist. United States National Debt Clock January 2021 - The United States is currently trillions upon trillions of dollars in debt, and much more is expected to be added to their books over the coming years. , In 1946 the Austrian state issued an Annulment Act that declared all transactions motivated by Nazi discrimination were void; any Jews who wanted to remove artwork from Austria were forced to give some of their works to Austrian museums in order to obtain an export permit for others. 6. But when she was 82, she learned from the tenacious Austrian investigative journalist Hubertus Czernin that the title to the paintings was hers, and she vowed to get them back. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941, along with the remainder of Ferdinand's assets, after a charge of tax evasion was made against him. Included in the exhibition will be a display of Adele Bloch-Bauer I, paintings, related drawings, vintage photographs, decorative arts, and …  Göring also used the Führervorbehalt decree to obtain the jewelled choker that had been given to Maria Altmann; it was given as a gift to Emmy, his wife. Adele Bloch-Bauer II sold for $87.9 million, Apfelbaum I for $33 million, Buchenwald for $40.3 million and Häuser in Unterach am Attersee for $31 million. Opera singer Fritz Altman, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer [ de ] was from a wealthy Viennese. 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